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World Health Day 2016 : What happens when you have diabetes?

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KATHMANDU — World Health Organisation has defined Diabetes as a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.

Insulin is a hormone that manages glucose. Hyperglycaemia, or raised glucose, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.

According to WHO data, in 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes and the disease was direct cause of some 1.5 million deaths in 2012, with more than 80% of those occurring in low-and middle-income countries.

Also called diabetes mellitus, diabetes is a group of chronic diseases where the amount of blood glucose is too high. Most common types of diabetes are:

Type 1 diabetes :  the body produces little or no insulin, and therefore patients require insulin injections to survive.

Type 2 diabetes : the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide. People with this condition are typically overweight and sedentary, two factors that raise a person’s insulin needs.

Type 2 diabetes is a common and increasingly prevalent illness that is largely preventable. In adults, type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes; the remainder are adult-onset (or adult-diagnosed) type 1 diabetes, a  form of diabetes for which the cause is unknown.

Although age, genetics, and lifestyle factors are the best predictors of type 2 diabetes risk, certain racial or ethnic groups have higher rates of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes even after adjusting for these factors.
Asian Americans have a nine percent higher risk of diabetes. Hispanics have a 12.8 percent higher risk, and non-Hispanic blacks have a 13.2 percent higher risk of diabetes.

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Type 2 diabetes risk increases with age. Although the number of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is increasing due to a growing number of overweight youth, it is considerably less common in children and young adults than in older individuals.

Although men have a slightly increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared to women, this may be more significantly associated with lifestyle factors and body weight than innate gender differences.

Here is a video by Diabetes UK that shows what happens when you have diabetes:

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HOTC sees remarkable success rate on kidney transplant

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HOTC sees remarkable success rate on kidney transplant

BHAKTAPUR — Shahid Dharmabhakta National Human Organ Transplant Centre (HOTC), Bhaktapur has successfully undertaken transplant of over 400 kidneys.

Hospital’s Executive Director Dr Pukar Chandra Shrestha, at a press conference organised here on Friday, informed that the Centre has so far successfully transplanted kidneys on 404 patients.

The Centre had initiated the kidney transplant service on January 19, 2013.

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The inflow of patients has alarmingly increased at the facility with the start of additional medical services such as urology, gastro surgery, cardio therapy, stone removal surgery along with other surgeries, besides kidney transplant, said Prof Dr Rakesh Verma.

However, the patients are compelled to wait for the transplant for long due to limited building space and availability of beds.

Right now, around 400 patients are waiting their turns for kidney transplant and more than this number are waiting to avail of dialysis service.

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