LONDON — Women who prefer physically formidable and dominant partner–regardless of the circumstances– also tend to feel more vulnerable to crime, according to research from the University of Leicester.
Previous researches suggested that women who grow up in high-crime areas and perceive they are at risk of criminal victimization find dominant men more appealing, perhaps because of the protection they can offer.
However, the University of Leicester group suggests that women who women who are attracted to dominant men generally feel more at risk of victimization, even when their risk of victimization is actually low.
PhD researcher Hannah Ryder from the University of Leicester’s Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, explained: “PPFDM appears to be associated with women’s self-assessed vulnerability.
The study found that women’s fear of crime significantly differed in response to crime cues – for example location and time of day – and that overall fear of crime was related to PPFDM.
However, the relationship between PPFDM and fear did not vary in relation to risk situation, perpetrator gender, or crime type, suggesting that the psychological mechanisms underlying the relationship between perceived risk of victimization and PPFDM are general in nature.
Women with strong PPFDM feel relatively more at risk, fearful, and vulnerable to criminal victimization compared to their counterparts, regardless of whether there are situational risk factors present.
“Our research suggests that the relationship between feelings of vulnerability, as measured by fear of crime, and women’s preference for physically formidable and dominant mates is stable, and does not update according to environmental circumstances or relative level of protection needed.”
The study involved assessing whether the relationship between fear of crime and PPFDM was higher for crimes that cause relatively higher physical and psychological pain, such as sexual assault.
Across two studies in the lab and field, women observed images and real life situations that varied in the risk of crime, such as crime hotspots and safe spots, and were asked to rate their perceived risk of victimization – a measure of fear of crime – of various crimes.
This included male – and female – perpetrated physical assault and robbery and male-perpetrated rape.
In both studies, the research team also administered a scale that measured women’s PPFDM, and assessed the association between women’s PPFDM score and their risk perception scores.
The research was undertaken as part of Hannah’s PhD project at the University of Leicester and was funded by a Psychology Postgraduate Affairs Group (PsyPAG) research grant.
The study is published in the journal Evolution and Human Behaviour.Follow @gorkhapost
Why women regret casual sex ?
WASHINGTON — In general, women regret short-term sexual encounters like one-night stands more than men do.But, the reason has remained unknown.
However, various factors determine whether and how much they regret them. According to a Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)-led study, an initiative is the clearest gender-differentiating factor for regret after casual sex, although other conditions also affect how much an individual regrets the encounter.
“The factor that clearly distinguishes women from men is the extent to which they themselves take the initiative,” says Mons Bendixen, an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at the NTNU.
Initiative is the clearest gender-differentiating factor for regret after casual sex, although other conditions also affect how much an individual regrets the encounter.
In contrast to women, sexual regret for men is not affected by whether they take the initiative. “Women who take the initiative see the man as an attractive sexual partner,” says Professor Leif Edvard Ottesen Kennair, also at NTNU’s Department of Psychology.
“Women who initiate sex are likely to have at least two distinguishing qualities,” said researcher David Buss, “First, they are likely to have a healthy sexual psychology, being maximally comfortable with their own sexuality. Second, women who initiate have maximum choice of precisely who they want to have sex with. Consequently, they have less reason to feel regret, since they’ve made their own choice.”
Researcher Mons Bendixen pointed out that these effects are not as strong in men, “Women have less regret if the sex was good. For men, this also plays a less important role. The underlying causes are biological”.
The higher-investing sex faces larger repercussions of mating decisions than the lower investing sex. Women have a higher minimum obligatory parental investment (e.g., 9 months internal gestation) than men. So, women’s regret should be more closely tied to the quality of their sex partner than men’s.
“For women, sexual skill might be a cue to high male quality,” said researcher Kelly Asao. In short, women may profit more from high quality in their sexual partners than men do.
This study,published in the Personality and Individual Differences, added several factors that can explain responses to casual sex.
The researchers also asked study participants if they took the initiative for the sex act, if they felt pressured to have sex and whether the partner was skilled or sexually competent. Participants were also asked if they experienced disgust.
Women also feel disgusted more often than men after a short-term sexual encounter. This is one of the key factors in whether or not they feel regret.
People may feel disgusted because they feel moral regret, but also if the act is unhygienic or if the sex itself was perceived as gross.
With Agency InputsFollow @gorkhapost
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