WASHINGTON — Moderate blood sugar levels are recommended for patients with Type 2 diabetes, according to a new research from the Endocrine Society and Avalere Health which was conducted by the American College of Physicians.
The findings published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine, stated that patients with Type 2 diabetes should be treated to achieve an A1C between 7 percent and 8 percent rather than 6.5 percent to 7 percent.
An A1C test measures a person’s average blood sugar level over the past two or three months. An A1C of 6.5 percent indicates diabetes.
“ACP’s analysis of the evidence behind existing guidelines found that treatment with drugs to targets of 7 percent or less compared to targets of about 8 percent did not reduce deaths or macrovascular complications such as heart attack or stroke but did result in substantial harms,” said researcher Jack Ende.
“The evidence shows that for most people with type 2 diabetes, achieving an A1C between 7 percent and 8 percent will best balance long-term benefits with harms such as low blood sugar, medication burden, and costs.”
ACP recommended that clinicians should personalise goals for blood sugar control in patients with type 2 diabetes based on a discussion of benefits and harms of drug therapy, patients’ preferences, patients’ general health and life expectancy, treatment burden, and costs of care.
The rationale in guidelines that recommended lower treatment targets (below 7 percent or below 6.5 percent) is that more intensive blood sugar control would reduce microvascular complications over many years of treatment.
However, the evidence for reduction is inconsistent and reductions were seen only in surrogate microvascular complications such as the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
Researchers in Sweden and Finland last week, published a new report suggesting that Type 2 diabetes should actually be broken down into five separate types, in the hopes of better tailoring treatments to individuals suffering the disease.
The pancreases of diabetics do not properly process sugar, either because their bodies do not produce enough insulin in Type 1 or because they have too high of an insulin tolerance in the set of variations formerly called Type 2.
If patients with Type 2 diabetes achieve an A1C of less than 6.5 percent, ACP recommended that clinicians consider de-intensifying drug therapy by reducing the dosage of current treatment, removing a medication if the patient is currently taking more than one drug, or discontinuing drug treatment.
“Results from studies included in all the guidelines demonstrate that health outcomes are not improved by treating to A1C levels below 6.5 percent,” Dr. Ende said.
“However, reducing drug interventions for patients with A1C levels persistently below 6.5 percent will reduce unnecessary medication harms, burdens, and costs without negatively impacting the risk of death, heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, amputations, visual impairment, or painful neuropathy.”
ACP also recommended that clinicians should treat patients with Type 2 diabetes to minimize symptoms related to high blood sugar rather than targeting an A1C level in patients with a life expectancy less than 10 years due to advanced age — 80 years or older — or chronic conditions (such as dementia, cancer, end stage kidney disease, severe COPD or congestive heart failure, and patients residing in nursing homes), as the harms of A1C targeted treatment outweigh the benefits in this patient population.
“Although ACP’s guidance statement focuses on drug therapy to control blood sugar, a lower treatment target is appropriate if it can be achieved with diet and lifestyle modifications such as exercise, dietary changes, and weight loss,” said Dr. Ende.
With Agency Inputs
Suicide can’t be predicted by asking about suicidal thoughts : Study
Most people who died of suicide deny they experience suicidal thoughts when asked by doctors in the weeks and months leading up to their death, a major Australian study has found.
The findings, co-authored by clinical psychiatrist and Professor Matthew Large from UNSW’s School of Psychiatry, Sydney that published in the journal BJPsych Open The meta-analysis challenge the widely-held assumption that psychiatrists can predict who will suicide by asking if they are preoccupied with thoughts of killing themselves.
The study showed that 80% of patients who were not undergoing psychiatric treatment and who died of suicide reported not to have suicidal thoughts when asked by their psychiatrist or GP.
“If you meet someone who has suicidal ideation there is a 98 per cent chance that they are not going to suicide,” said Professor Large, an international expert on suicide risk assessment who also works in the emergency department of a major Sydney hospital.
“But what we didn’t know was how frequently people who go on to suicide have denied having suicidal thoughts when asked directly,” he added.
“This study proves we can no longer ration psychiatric care based on the presence of suicidal thoughts alone. We need to provide high-quality, patient-centred care for everyone experiencing mental illness, whether or not they reveal they are experiencing suicidal thoughts,” Professor Large said.
About one in 10 people will have suicidal ideation in their lifetime. But the study showed suicidal ideation alone was not rational grounds for deciding who gets treatment and who does not, Professor Large said.
“We know that suicide feeling is pretty common and that suicide is actually a rare event, even among people with severe mental illness,” Professor Large added.
Suicidal ideation tells us an awful lot about how a person is feeling, their psychological distress, sometimes their diagnosis and their need for treatment but it’s not a meaningful test of future behaviour.
Suicidal feelings can fluctuate rapidly and people may suicide very impulsively after only a short period of suicidal thoughts.
But, people had good reasons not to disclose thoughts of suicide, fearing stigma, triggering over-reactions or upsetting family and friends, and being involuntarily admitted for psychiatric treatment, Professor Large said.
Professor Large emphasized that clinicians should not assume that patients experiencing mental distress without reporting suicidal ideas were not at elevated risk of suicide.