As the number of highly educated women has increased in recent decades, the chances of “marrying up” have increased significantly for men and decreased for women, according to a new study published in the journal Demography.
The pattern of marriage and its economic consequences have changed over time,” said lead author Chang Hwan Kim, associate professor of sociology at University of Kansas in the US.
“Now women are more likely to get married to a less-educated man. What is the consequence of this,” asked Kim.
Researchers examined gender-specific changes in the total financial return to education among people of prime working ages, 35 to 44 years old, using US Census data from 1990 and 2000 and the 2009-2011 American Community Survey.
The researchers examined gender-specific changes in the total financial return to education among people of prime working ages, 35 to 44 years old, using US Census data from 1990 and 2000 and the 2009-2011 American Community Survey.
They investigated the return to education not only in labor markets but also in the marriage market.
“Previously, women received more total financial return to education than men, because their return in the marriage market was high. However, this female advantage has deteriorated over time despite women’s substantial progress in education and labor-market performance,” Kim said.
They found the overall net advantage of being female in terms of family-standard-of-living decreased approximately 13 percent between 1990 and 2009-2011.
Women’s personal earnings have grown faster than men’s earnings during this time as women have increased their education and experienced a greater return on education.
However, the number of highly educated women exceeds the number of highly educated men in the marriage market, the researchers found. Women are more likely to be married to a less-educated man.
A husband’s contribution to family income has decreased because of the combined facts that husbands are less educated than their wives than before, and the return on earnings for men has stagnated. On the other hand, wives’ contribution to family income has substantially increased.
This has led to a faster improvement of the family standard of living for men than for equally educated women themselves, Kim said, and helped converge the gap in equivalised income between wives and husbands.
“This could explain why it seems men don’t complain a lot about this,” Kim said. “Our answer is that’s true because look at the actual quality of life, which is determined more likely by family income rather than by personal earnings.
It seems fine for men because their wife is now bringing more income to the household. One implication of these findings is that the importance of marriage market has increased for men’s total economic well-being.”
These developments could also result in gender convergence in the family standard of living associated with this shift in the norm of marriage, away from previous eras.
“Marriage is now becoming more egalitarian and becoming equal,” Kim said. “If you look at gender dynamics or from a marriage-equality standpoint, that is a really good sign.”
However, the study’s results also have implications for examining potential effects of marriage and economic inequality.
“For less-educated women, the contribution of their husbands has been substantially reduced so that their standard of living has diminished, even though their personal earnings have grown,” the researchers said.
This could aggravate a wealth gap among less-educated or low-income families, the researchers said. Kim said potential future research could monitor how family demography still shapes and directly underlies inequality, even as family relations continue to evolve.Follow @gorkhapost
Big belly is still a heart attack risk even if not obese
People whose waist is bigger than their hips should see their doctor immediately, according to a recent styudy report as too much belly fat could harm their heart.
The study found subjects with a normal body mass index (BMI)but a spare tyre are twice as likely to suffer heart problems as obese or overweight people who do not have a pronounced paunch.
Previous studies have shown that belly fat can hamper lung function and raise risk of cancer.
“See your doctor if your waist is bigger than your hips,” said study author Dr Jose Medina-Inojosa from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. He’s with the Mayo Clinic’s division of preventive cardiology, in Rochester, Minn.
The findings were presented at a European Society of Cardiology meeting, in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Research presented at meetings is considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Researchers spent 15 years monitoring 1,692 American residents aged 45 and over in Olmsted County, Minnesota and were followed from 2000 to 2016.
Those with a normal BMI — an estimate of overall body fat based on height and weight — but high levels of belly fat were about twice as likely to have a heart attack, procedures to open blocked arteries, or to die from heart problems during the follow-up than people without belly fat.
Dr Jose said it was important for docs not to assume patients with a normal BMI are not at risk of heart attacks or strokes.
“People with a normal weight but a fat belly have more chance of heart problems than people without a fat belly, even if they are obese according to BMI,” he said.
He added that doctors shouldn’t assume that people with a normal BMI are not at risk of heart problems.
“If you have fat around your belly and it’s greater than the size of your hips, visit your doctor to assess your cardiovascular health and fat distribution,” he said adding, “If you have central obesity [belly fat], the target will be waist loss rather than weight loss.”
“Exercise more, decrease sedentary time by taking the stairs or getting off the train one stop early and walking, increase your muscle mass with strength and resistance training, and cut out refined carbohydrates,” he advised.
With Agency InputsFollow @gorkhapost