As the number of highly educated women has increased in recent decades, the chances of “marrying up” have increased significantly for men and decreased for women, according to a new study published in the journal Demography.
The pattern of marriage and its economic consequences have changed over time,” said lead author Chang Hwan Kim, associate professor of sociology at University of Kansas in the US.
“Now women are more likely to get married to a less-educated man. What is the consequence of this,” asked Kim.
Researchers examined gender-specific changes in the total financial return to education among people of prime working ages, 35 to 44 years old, using US Census data from 1990 and 2000 and the 2009-2011 American Community Survey.
The researchers examined gender-specific changes in the total financial return to education among people of prime working ages, 35 to 44 years old, using US Census data from 1990 and 2000 and the 2009-2011 American Community Survey.
They investigated the return to education not only in labor markets but also in the marriage market.
“Previously, women received more total financial return to education than men, because their return in the marriage market was high. However, this female advantage has deteriorated over time despite women’s substantial progress in education and labor-market performance,” Kim said.
They found the overall net advantage of being female in terms of family-standard-of-living decreased approximately 13 percent between 1990 and 2009-2011.
Women’s personal earnings have grown faster than men’s earnings during this time as women have increased their education and experienced a greater return on education.
However, the number of highly educated women exceeds the number of highly educated men in the marriage market, the researchers found. Women are more likely to be married to a less-educated man.
A husband’s contribution to family income has decreased because of the combined facts that husbands are less educated than their wives than before, and the return on earnings for men has stagnated. On the other hand, wives’ contribution to family income has substantially increased.
This has led to a faster improvement of the family standard of living for men than for equally educated women themselves, Kim said, and helped converge the gap in equivalised income between wives and husbands.
“This could explain why it seems men don’t complain a lot about this,” Kim said. “Our answer is that’s true because look at the actual quality of life, which is determined more likely by family income rather than by personal earnings.
It seems fine for men because their wife is now bringing more income to the household. One implication of these findings is that the importance of marriage market has increased for men’s total economic well-being.”
These developments could also result in gender convergence in the family standard of living associated with this shift in the norm of marriage, away from previous eras.
“Marriage is now becoming more egalitarian and becoming equal,” Kim said. “If you look at gender dynamics or from a marriage-equality standpoint, that is a really good sign.”
However, the study’s results also have implications for examining potential effects of marriage and economic inequality.
“For less-educated women, the contribution of their husbands has been substantially reduced so that their standard of living has diminished, even though their personal earnings have grown,” the researchers said.
This could aggravate a wealth gap among less-educated or low-income families, the researchers said. Kim said potential future research could monitor how family demography still shapes and directly underlies inequality, even as family relations continue to evolve.Follow @gorkhapost
Shree Panchami today
KATHMANDU — Shree Panchasmi also known as Basanta Panchami or Saraswoti Puja, was observed across the country by worshipping Saraswoti, the Goddess of knowledge, wisdom, learning, art, music and culture, on Monday.
Shree Panchami is celebrated on the fifth day of the waxing moon in the month of Magh every year according to the Nepali calendar.
The festival is celebrated every year on the fifth day of the bright half of the Nepali month of Magh. People from the Hindu and Sikh communities mainly in Nepal and eastern India observe this festival.
The festival is taken as the symbol of an advent of the spring season as plants start sprouting; winter crops like barley and wheat plants and plum, pear and peach trees start yielding and many flowering plants start blooming with this.
The day is very special for students and new learners. Students take early bath, observe the mass Saraswati Puja in schools and visit temples and listen to the Basanta Shrawran. Goddess Saraswati is worshiped with various names such as Bharati, Sharada, Jagatmata, Bageshwari, Kaumari, Baradayani and Kamdhenu.
It is believed that from this day, the sun starts moving to the northern hemisphere, causing longer days and signalling the beginning of spring season.
Marriage ceremonies and other religious functions are also performed on this day as the day is believed to be auspicious. Legend has it that reciting and listening to verses about goddess Saraswati on this day enriches knowledge.
The festival is considered as the best day of starting something new in human life and make a commitment to good causes.Follow @gorkhapost