Male sparrows can judge if a life partner is prone to infidelity, providing less food for their brood if their partner is unfaithful, finds a new study.
Researchers from the UK, Germany, and Australia have now revealed that males make the decision of how much to provide for their chicks based on the tendency of their partner to cheat.
The study, published today in The American Naturalist, followed the entire sparrow population of the island of Lundy in the Bristol Channel for 12 years.
Sparrows form pair bonds that are normally monogamous, but many females are unfaithful to their partner and have offspring with other males.
Lead researcher Dr Julia Schroeder of the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial College London said: “Males changed their behavior based on their partner. When they switched from a faithful partner to one prone to infidelity, they provided less food for their brood.” Females might also change their behaviour when paired with a less lazy male, cheating less with a more attentive father.
Biologists believe that the male birds are unfaithful to ensure that they father as many chicks as they can, while females are unfaithful with males of better ‘genetic quality’ – ones that are fitter and could produce stronger offspring.
However, cheating comes with a cost – the cheating female’s partner will provide less food for their nest of young. It has long been suspected that males know that not all the chicks in their nest are theirs, and so make a decision to provide less. But an alternative explanation is that cheating females and lazy males tend to pair up naturally.
The research showed that males cannot actually identify whether all the chicks in their nest are theirs or not, and instead base their feeding decisions on who their female partner is.
“If chicks were switched into a nest where the female was faithful, then the father at that nest kept up his hard work providing for the chicks, suggesting they have no mechanism, such as smell, to determine which chicks are theirs,” said Dr Schroeder. “Instead, the males may use cues from the female’s behaviour during her fertile period – for example how long she spends away from the nest.”
The study followed 200 males and 194 females as they formed 313 unique monogamous pairs and hatched 863 broods on Lundy. Some sparrow ‘divorces’ occurred – but most changes of life partner were due to a death.
The team DNA genotyped every sparrow, allowing them to build up precise family trees, and find out which females were most unfaithful and who their cheating males were. “Lundy is a unique natural laboratory because it is almost a closed system – very few birds leave the island or arrive from the mainland. In the entire 12 years only four birds immigrated to Lundy, possibly carried by boat.”
Being unfaithful may be a costly behavior for females because they only lay a limited number of eggs, and it may be a hangover from when their ancestors were not monogamous, rather than a useful strategy for getting the strongest offspring.
Dr Schroeder and her team are continuing to study the Lundy sparrows to uncover how and why social behaviors like monogamy arose.Follow @gorkhapost
NRNA Third Africa Regional Meeting from Dec 29
KATHMANDU— The Third Africa Regional Meeting of Non-Resident Nepali Association ( NRNA) will be held in Kampala, the capital of Uganda on December 29-30.
‘Development experiences exchange’ is the theme for the meeting this year where African experts and Nepali experts living in Africa will exchange experiences of development activities of African countries.
On the occasion, the predicaments facing Nepali workers in African countries will also be shared.
The meeting would be attended by representatives from the National Coordination Council, International Coordination Council of 17 different countries of Africa as well as other countries in other continents.
Nepali artists together with the African ones will show cultural performances during the meeting. According to the National Coordination Council, Uganda a seminar of Nepali language and literature will be held on the sidelines of the meeting.Follow @gorkhapost