NEW YORK — Consuming more of dietary fibres that promote a type of gut bacteria, leading to better blood glucose control, may help in the fight against Type 2 diabetes, researchers have discovered.
The findings, published Friday in the journal Science, showed that a diversified high fibre diet can promote 15 strains of gut bacteria which produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) provide energy to gut cells, reduce inflammation and help regulate hunger.
The six-year long study, led by Rutgers University, shows that these dietary fibers may rebalance the gut microbiota, the ecosystem of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that help digest food.
“Our study lays the foundation and opens the possibility that fibers targeting this group of gut bacteria could eventually become a major part of your diet and your treatment,” said lead author Liping Zhao, a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences at Rutgers University-New Brunswick, in a press release.
In research based in China, Zhao and scientists from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Yan Lam, a research assistant professor in Zhao’s lab at Rutgers, studied patients with type 2 diabetes in two groups.
In a 27-person treatment group, participants were was given a large amount of many types of dietary fibers, along with a similar diet for energy and major nutrients.
A control group of 16, meanwhile, received standard patient education and dietary recommendations. Both groups also took the drug acarbose to help control blood glucose.
After 12 weeks, patients on the high-fibre diet had greater reduction in a three-month average of blood glucose levels.In addition, their fasting blood glucose levels dropped faster and they lost more weight than the standard care group.
Only 15 of the 141 identifiable strains of short-chain fatty acid-producing gut bacteria are likely to be the key drivers of better health, researchers say, but they became the dominant strains in the gut after boosting short-chain fatty acids butyrate and acetate. They also led to increased insulin production and better blood glucose control.
Many bacteria break down carbohydrates, such as dietary fibers, and produce short-chain fatty acids that nourish cells lining the gut. In turn, they reduce inflammation and help control appetite.
But in diabetes and other diseases, there a shortage of bacteria’s short-chain fatty acids.
Researchers say they plan further studies to determine if greater changes to the gut microbiota could do more to help treat type 2 diabetes.
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Sudden cardiac arrests are more likely to happen on any day at any time : Study
A new study has showed that sudden cardiac arrests are more likely to happen on any day at any time, challenging previous claims that weekday mornings — especially Mondays — were the danger zones.
Previously heart experts have long believed that weekday mornings were the danger zones for unexpected deaths from sudden cardiac arrests.
“While there are likely several reasons to explain why more cardiac arrests happen outside of previously identified peak times, stress is likely a major factor,” said Sumeet Chugh, a Professor of medicine from the Smidt Heart Institute in the US.
“We now live in a fast-paced, ‘always on’ era that causes increased psycho-social stress and possibly an increase in the likelihood of sudden cardiac arrest,” Chugh added.
Almost 17 million cardiac deaths occur annually worldwide while the survival rate from sudden cardiac arrest is less than one per cent.
For the study, published in the journal Heart Rhythm, Chugh’s team analysed data on 1,535 from the community-based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study between 2004 to 2014, among which only 13.9 per cent died in the early morning hours, the findings revealed.
All reported cases were based on emergency medical service reports containing detailed information regarding the cause of the cardiac arrest.
“Because sudden cardiac arrest is usually fatal, we have to prevent it before it strikes,” Chugh said. “Our next steps are to conclusively determine the underlying reasons behind this shift, then identify public health implications as a result,” he added.
Apart from stress, other contributing factors may be a shift in how high-risk patients are being treated, as well as inadequacies in how past studies have measured time of death caused by sudden cardiac arrest.Follow @gorkhapost