NEW YORK — Consuming more of dietary fibres that promote a type of gut bacteria, leading to better blood glucose control, may help in the fight against Type 2 diabetes, researchers have discovered.
The findings, published Friday in the journal Science, showed that a diversified high fibre diet can promote 15 strains of gut bacteria which produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) provide energy to gut cells, reduce inflammation and help regulate hunger.
The six-year long study, led by Rutgers University, shows that these dietary fibers may rebalance the gut microbiota, the ecosystem of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that help digest food.
“Our study lays the foundation and opens the possibility that fibers targeting this group of gut bacteria could eventually become a major part of your diet and your treatment,” said lead author Liping Zhao, a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences at Rutgers University-New Brunswick, in a press release.
In research based in China, Zhao and scientists from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Yan Lam, a research assistant professor in Zhao’s lab at Rutgers, studied patients with type 2 diabetes in two groups.
In a 27-person treatment group, participants were was given a large amount of many types of dietary fibers, along with a similar diet for energy and major nutrients.
A control group of 16, meanwhile, received standard patient education and dietary recommendations. Both groups also took the drug acarbose to help control blood glucose.
After 12 weeks, patients on the high-fibre diet had greater reduction in a three-month average of blood glucose levels.In addition, their fasting blood glucose levels dropped faster and they lost more weight than the standard care group.
Only 15 of the 141 identifiable strains of short-chain fatty acid-producing gut bacteria are likely to be the key drivers of better health, researchers say, but they became the dominant strains in the gut after boosting short-chain fatty acids butyrate and acetate. They also led to increased insulin production and better blood glucose control.
Many bacteria break down carbohydrates, such as dietary fibers, and produce short-chain fatty acids that nourish cells lining the gut. In turn, they reduce inflammation and help control appetite.
But in diabetes and other diseases, there a shortage of bacteria’s short-chain fatty acids.
Researchers say they plan further studies to determine if greater changes to the gut microbiota could do more to help treat type 2 diabetes.
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Adding glass of milk in breakfast can lower blood glucose
Several research studies have attempted to find a link between drinking milk and a reduced risk for experiencing type 2 diabetes and a new research has found that adding a glass of milk in breakfast is the perfect energy boost for body needs to get through the day.
According to a study published in the Journal of Dairy Science, consuming milk with breakfast cereal reduced postprandial blood glucose concentration compared with water, and high dairy protein concentration reduced postprandial blood glucose concentration compared with normal dairy protein concentration.
H Douglas Goff, PhD, and the team of scientists from the Human Nutraceutical Research Unit at the University of Guelph, in collaboration with the University of Toronto, examined the effects of consuming high-protein milk for breakfast on blood glucose levels.
The high-protein treatment also reduced appetite after the second meal compared with the low-protein equivalent.
“Metabolic diseases are on the rise globally, with type 2 diabetes and obesity as leading concerns in human health. Thus, there is an impetus to develop dietary strategies for the risk reduction and management of obesity and diabetes to empower consumers to improve their personal health,” Goff and his team noted.
Although the team only found a modest difference in food consumption at the lunch meal when increasing whey protein at breakfast, they did find that milk consumed with a high-carbohydrate breakfast reduced blood glucose even after lunch, and high-protein milk had a greater effect.
Milk with an increased proportion of whey protein had a modest effect on pre-lunch blood glucose, achieving a greater decrease than that provided by regular milk.
Likewise, a 2014 study from Lund University in Sweden published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found eating high-fat milk and yogurt reduces a person’s type 2 diabetes risk by as much as one-fifth.
Another study published in the 2011 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition tracked the relationship between a person’s dairy consumption during adolescence and their risk for type 2 diabetes as an adult. The researchers concluded that “higher dairy product intake during adolescence is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.”Follow @gorkhapost