KATHMANDU — Exercising on an empty stomach may help burn more fat and fuel favourable changes in your adipose tissue, which may be better for your health in the long term, a new study hasrevealed.
The study published in the American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism analysed effects of eating versus fasting on gene expression in adipose (fat) tissue in response to exercise.
Researchers from University of Bath in the UK studied a group of overweight males, who were made to walk for 60 minutes at 60 per cent maximum oxygen consumption on an empty stomach and, on another occasion, two hours after consuming a high-calorie carbohydrate-rich breakfast.
After eating, adipose tissue “is busy responding to the meal and a bout of exercise at this time will not stimulate the same (beneficial) changes in adipose tissue”, explained corresponding author of the study Dylan Thompson from University of Bath in Britain.
“This means that exercise in a fasted state might provoke more favourable changes in adipose tissue, and this could be beneficial for health in the long term,” Thompson added.
“We propose that feeding is likely to blunt long-term adipose tissue adaptation to regular exercise,” the researchers noted in the study.
The research team took multiple blood samples after eating or fasting and after exercising and they also collected fat tissue samples immediately before and one hour after walking.
Gene expression in the adipose tissue differed significantly in the two trials.
The expression of two genes, PDK4 and HSL, increased when the men fasted and exercised and decreased when they ate before exercising.
The rise in PDK4 likely indicates that stored fat was used to fuel metabolism during exercise instead of carbohydrates from the recent meal.
HSL typically increases when adipose tissue uses stored energy to support increased activity, such as during exercise, Thompson said.
These results reinforce the view that “adipose tissue often faces competing challenges,” Thompson wrote.
Their findings suggest that exercising on an empty stomach might provoke more favourable changes in adipose tissue, and this could be beneficial for health in the long term.
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Drinking 3 cups of coffee or tea daily may keep stroke risk at bay
KATHMANDU — There have been several conflicting studies on the health benefits of drinking coffee and tea and their various varieties. But drinking up to three cups of coffee or tea in a day is safe because it reduces irregular heartbeat and stroke risk, according to a new study published in the journal JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology.
Coffee has previously been believed to worsen abnormal heart rhythms, as doctors generally discourage patients suffering from the condition. However, the results of this particular study say that a daily consumption of upto 300 mg of caffeine may be safe for arrhythmic patients.
This is because the caffeine acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system and blocks the effect of adenosine. Adenosine is a chemical which causes Atrial Fibrillation (AFib).
A single cup of coffee contains about 95 mg of caffeine. It acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system and works to block the effects of adenosine — a chemical that causes AFib.
AFib is the most common heart rhythm disorder, causes the heart to beat rapidly and skip beats, and if left untreated, can cause strokes.
“There is a public perception, often based on anecdotal experience, that caffeine is a common acute trigger for heart rhythm problems,” said lead author Peter Kistler, Director at Melbourne’s Alfred Hospital.
But, “caffeinated beverages such as coffee and tea have long-term anti-arrhythmic properties mediated by antioxidant effects and antagonism of adenosine,” he added.
A meta-analysis of 228,465 participants showed that AFib frequency decreasing by 6 per cent in regular coffee drinkers, and an analysis of 115,993 patients showed a 13 per cent reduced risk.
Another study of 103 post-heart attack patients who received an average of 353 mg of caffeine a day showed improvement in heart rate and no significant arrhythmias — or abnormal heart rhythms, that cause the heart to beat too fast, slow or unevenly.
However, in two studies, where patients drank at least 10 cups and nine cups of coffee per day, showed an increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) – a condition in which the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles) beat very quickly.
On the other hand, patients with pre-existing heart conditions who consumed two or more energy drinks — that contains concentrated caffeine — per day reported palpitations within 24 hours.
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