WAHINGTON — People with Type 2 diabetes who eat breakfast later, are more likely to have a higher Body Mass Indices (BMI).
According to a study conducted by the University of Illinois at Chicago, an ‘evening person’ is linked to higher body mass indices among people with Type 2 diabetes, and having breakfast later in the day seems to be what drives this association.
Obesity is common among people with Type 2 diabetes. Having an evening preference — waking up later and going to bed later — has been linked to an increased risk for obesity, but research is lacking regarding this phenomenon among people with Type 2 diabetes.
Researchers, led by Sirimon Reutrakul, wanted to determine if morning or evening preference among people with Type 2 diabetes was associated with an increased risk for higher BMI and if so, what specific factors about evening preference contributed to the increased risk.
Reutrakul and her colleagues recruited 210 non-shift workers living in Thailand with Type 2 diabetes for their study. Morning/evening preference was assessed using a questionnaire that focused on preferred time for waking up and going to bed; time of day spent exercising; and time of day spent engaged in a mental activity (working, reading, etc.).
Participants were interviewed regarding their meal timing, and daily caloric intake was determined via self-reported one-day food recalls. Weight measurements were taken and BMI was calculated for each participant. Sleep duration and quality were measured by self-report and questionnaire.
Self-reported average sleep duration was 5.5 hours/night. On average, participants consumed 1,103 kcal/day. The average BMI among all participants was 28.4 kg/m2 — considered overweight. Of the participants, 97 had evening preference and 113 had morning preference.
Participants with morning prefereEarly breakfast is important for people with Type 2 diabetesnce ate breakfast between 7 a.m. and 8:30 a.m., while participants with evening preference ate breakfast between 7:30 a.m. and 9 a.m.
Participants with morning preference had earlier meal timing, including breakfast, lunch, dinner and the last meal.
The researchers found that having more evening preference was associated with higher BMI. Caloric intake and lunch and dinner times were not associated with having a higher BMI.
Morning preference was associated with earlier breakfast time and lower BMI by 0.37 kg/m2.
“Later breakfast time is a novel risk factor associated with a higher BMI among people with Type 2 diabetes,” said Reutrakul. “It remains to be investigated if eating breakfast earlier will help with body weight in this population.”
Reutrakul speculated that later meal times may misalign the internal biological clock, which plays a role in circadian regulation.
The findings from the study are published in the journal Diabetic Medicine.
Sudden cardiac arrests are more likely to happen on any day at any time : Study
A new study has showed that sudden cardiac arrests are more likely to happen on any day at any time, challenging previous claims that weekday mornings — especially Mondays — were the danger zones.
Previously heart experts have long believed that weekday mornings were the danger zones for unexpected deaths from sudden cardiac arrests.
“While there are likely several reasons to explain why more cardiac arrests happen outside of previously identified peak times, stress is likely a major factor,” said Sumeet Chugh, a Professor of medicine from the Smidt Heart Institute in the US.
“We now live in a fast-paced, ‘always on’ era that causes increased psycho-social stress and possibly an increase in the likelihood of sudden cardiac arrest,” Chugh added.
Almost 17 million cardiac deaths occur annually worldwide while the survival rate from sudden cardiac arrest is less than one per cent.
For the study, published in the journal Heart Rhythm, Chugh’s team analysed data on 1,535 from the community-based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study between 2004 to 2014, among which only 13.9 per cent died in the early morning hours, the findings revealed.
All reported cases were based on emergency medical service reports containing detailed information regarding the cause of the cardiac arrest.
“Because sudden cardiac arrest is usually fatal, we have to prevent it before it strikes,” Chugh said. “Our next steps are to conclusively determine the underlying reasons behind this shift, then identify public health implications as a result,” he added.
Apart from stress, other contributing factors may be a shift in how high-risk patients are being treated, as well as inadequacies in how past studies have measured time of death caused by sudden cardiac arrest.Follow @gorkhapost