Callous and unemotional traits are linked to differences in brain structure in boys, but not in girls, according to a research by a European team led by the University of Basel and University of Basel Psychiatric Hospital.
In a study, published in the journal Neuroimage: Clinical, the researchers have studied on brain development in 189 adolescents.
The researchers, using magnetic resonance imaging, were able to take a closer look at the brain development of typically-developing 189 teenagers to find out whether callous-unemotional traits are linked to differences in brain structure.
The researchers found that the relationship between callous-unemotional traits and brain structure differs between boys and girls.
Callous-unemotional traits are characterised by a lack of empathy, a disregard for others’ feelings and shallow or deficient affect, such as a lack of remorse or guilt. These traits have been linked to deficits in development of the conscience and of empathy.
The findings showed that in typically-developing boys, the volume of the anterior insula or gray matter volume — a brain region implicated in recognising emotions in others and empathy — is larger in those with higher levels of callous-unemotional traits.
The volume explained 19% of the variance in callous-unemotional traits seen only in, but not in girls with the same personality traits.
The findings showed that in typically-developing boys, the volume of the anterior insula — a brain region implicated in recognizing emotions in others and empathy — is larger in those with higher levels of callous-unemotional traits.
This variation in brain structure was only seen in boys, but not in girls with the same personality traits.
“Our findings demonstrate that callous-unemotional traits are related to differences in brain structure in typically-developing boys without a clinical diagnosis,” said lead author Nora Maria Raschle from the University of Basel in Switzerland.
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Why men prefer curvy women, revealed
NEW YORK —Why do most men prefer ladies with curvier bodies, especially sharp curvy hips? According to a study, modern man’s this preference has ancient evolutionary roots.
According to a research carried out by a team from the University of Texas (UT) at Austin and the UT – Arlington has found that for a mate, man preferred a woman with a “theoretically optimal angle of lumber curving,” a 45.5-degree bend from back to buttocks allowing ancestral women to better support, provide for, and carry out multiple pregnancies.
“The findings enable us to conclusively show that men prefer women who exhibit specific angles of spinal bend over buttock mass,” said study’s co-author Eric Russell from the UT – Arlington in a paper published in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior.
This investigation consisted of two studies. The first looked at vertebral wedging, an underlying spinal feature that can influence the actual curve in women’s lower backs.
Around 100 men rated the attractiveness of several manipulated images showing spinal curves ranging across the natural spectrum.
Men were most attracted to images of women displaying the hypothesized optimum of 45 degrees of lumbar curvature.
This adds growing body of evidence that beauty is not entirely arbitrary or “according to the viewer” as many in mainstream social sciences believed, but instead has a coherent adaptive logic, added psychology professor David Buss from the UT Austin.
“This spinal structure would have enabled pregnant women to adjust their weight over the hips,” the authors noted.
These women would have been more effective at foraging during pregnancy and less likely to suffer spinal injuries.
Thus, men who preferred these women would have had mates who were better able to provide for foetus and offspring, and who would have been the able to carry out multiple pregnancies without injury.
The second study addressed the topic of whether men prefer this angle because it reflects bigger buttocks, or whether it truly can be attributed to the angle in the spine itself.
Around 200 men were presented with groups of images of women with differing buttock size and vertebral wedging, but maintaining a 45.5-degree curve.
Men consistently preferred women whose spinal curvature was closer to optimum regardless of buttock size.Follow @gorkhapost